Conclusions. In this talk, we have discussed the nature of the listening skill in real-life communication

In this talk, we have discussed the nature of the listening skill in real-life communication. We have also considered the role and place of listening in teaching English. We have then outlined listening comprehension typology and described types of texts for teaching listening. Having defined major premises and conditions for effective teaching listening, we have been able to derive the system of exercises in it.


1. Define the role and place of listening in teaching English.

2. Characterise listening as a skill in real-life communication. List its functions and kinds.

3. In what ways do focused and casual listening differ from intensive and extensive listening?

4. What are the types of listening distinguished in dialogic speech?

5. What types of texts are used for teaching listening in school? At what stage?

6. Dwell upon the importance of authentic listening for language learners.

7. Characterise major premises for effective teaching listening.

8. What are the conditions for effective listening?

9. Dwell upon the importance of isolating the listening skill in a primary classroom.

10. List all kinds of preparatory exercises for listening. Provide your own examples.

11. List all kinds of communicative exercises in teaching listening. Give examples of your own.

12. Justify the use of songs in teaching listening.


In this talk, we will discuss the nature of reading as perception and interpretation of information and its functions in real life. Then we’ll proceed to analysing reading as a skill and define the aims of teaching reading in school. We shall look at various kinds of reading to be mastered in school and point out corresponding techniques of reading. All this will help us get a picture of how to teach reading and determine stages of teaching reading. Finally, we will consider types of exercises in teaching reading in school.
9.1. Reading as perception of information

9.1.1.Vocalisation and verbose

9.1.2. Redundancy Uncertainty and information Sources of redundancy

9.2. Reading as interpretation of information

9.2.1. Surface and deep structures

9.2.2. Grammar

9.2.3. Learning: Knowledge

9.2.4. Three faces of memory

9.3. Reading as a skill

9.3.1. Reading in real life: Functions

9.3.2. Interest and usefulness

9.3.3. Purpose and expectations

9.3.4. Specialist skills of reading Predictive skills Extracting specific information Getting the general picture Extracting detailed information Recognising function and discourse patterns Deducing meaning from context

9.4. Aims of teaching reading in school

9.4.1. Reading as a vehicle of teaching

9.4.2. Aims of teaching reading in a secondary school

9.4.3. Kinds of reading mastered in school

9.4.4. Techniques of reading and stages of teaching

9.5. How to teach reading

9.5.1. Teaching reading aloud Three methods of teaching reading aloud Grapheme-phonemic exercises Structural-information exercises

9.5.2. Teaching silent reading The twin problems of analysis and synthesis Semantic-communicative exercises

9.6. Conclusions